The following scientific paper and conference presentations cover a large fraction of the BIOCTANE research results.

Research Paper

In order to achieve the goal of limiting global warming to 1.5 °C, also the growing aviation industry needs to take measures to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Various renewably sourced aviation fuels can significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and most of them, except for example liquid hydrogen or LNG, can be used in the existing infrastructure without airport or aircraft modifications. As most of these renewably sourced fuel types are not (yet) produced at commercial scale, many technological assessment parameter (e.g. carbon or energy efficiency) are uncertain. Thus, the goal of this study is to compare two different process routes, both being based on biochemical and thermochemical conversion steps. The processes evaluated against conversion efficiency of the available raw feedstock and process energy requirements. The evaluation uses theoretical and biochemical carbon efficiency as well as energy efficiency as indicators. A steady-state flowsheet simulation for two biogenic process paths via biogas and bioethanol as intermediate products is carried out on the basis of literature data. In addition, the optional use of solid residue from the biotechnological process step by combustion for direct heat supply cases are studied. In the ethanol-based route, about 23% of the carbon in the feed can be recovered as kerosene, whereas this is only about 19% in the biogas route. Simultaneously, the ethanol-based route without the combustion of the residue has an energy efficiency of 28%, while the biogas route has an efficiency of 24%.

Conference presentations